1. We are all rational beings
2. We are being who are capable of reason
3. We are autonomous being
4. admitted the utilitarian
When we seeks the pleasure, we aren’t acting freely but rather the slave of impulse and according to the natural necessities.
5. To act freely = to act autonomously = to act according to the laws I give myself
To act freely is not to choose the best means to a given end but is to choose the end for its own sake
::We act as means to realization of ends::
::We are instrument rather than authors of the purpose we pursue::
::Insofar we act autonomously, we become as ends in ourselves.::
What makes an action morally worth has to do with the motive, with the quality of the will, with the intention of duty
Only actions done for the sake of moral laws and for the sake of duty is moral worth.
The reason that leads us to the moral law we give to ourselves is the kind of pure practical reason we all shared
- Motive : duty vs inclination
- Determination : autonomous vs heteronomous
- Imperatives : hypothetical imperative and categorical imperative
What is the categorical imperative ?
What is the superme principle of morality ?
What it commands of us ?
- The formula of universal law
Universalise the maxim which you are about to act
- The formula of humanity as End
::Human beings are ends in itself not as use of any uses::
When we deal with other people for the sake of advanced project as far as we treat them in the way that is consistent with their dignity